Total number of library items: 244

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Published Year: 2023.    Publication Type: Journal Article
Publication Title: Drug Testing and Analysis.

Behavioral Intentions Assessment of a Disposable E_Cigarette Among Adult Current, Former, and Non_Smokers in the United States

Authors: Fearon, Ian M., McKinney, Willie J., Russell, Christopher

ISBN/ISSN:
1942-7603, 1942-7611.    DOI: 10.1002/dta.3467.
Website/Url: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/dta.3467

Abstract:

Modeling the public health effects of e-cigarettes requires estimates of the likelihood that different individuals and population subgroups will start using e-cigarettes and subsequently transition to and from combustible cigarette use. To begin to generate input values for modeling efforts, this study assessed adults’ behavioral intentions in relation to a disposable e-cigarette, “BIDI® Stick.” An online questionnaire assessed intentions to try and use a BIDI® Stick regularly in 11 flavor variants among United States (U.S.) nationally representative samples of adult (21+ years) non-smokers (n = 2284), current smokers (n = 2391), former smokers (n = 2241), and young adult (21–24 years) non-smokers (n = 1140) of combustible cigarettes following exposure to product information and images. Current smokers rated their intentions to use a BIDI® Stick to partially or completely replace cigarettes. Positive intention to try a BIDI® Stick at least once was, for each flavor variant, highest among current smokers (22.4%–28.1%), lower among former smokers (6.0%–9.7%) and non-smokers (3.4%–5.2%), and lowest among never-smokers (1.0%–2.4%). Among current smokers, former smokers, and non-smokers, trial and regular use intentions were lowest among e-cigarette non-users and e-cigarette never-users. Approximately 23.6% of current smokers reported an intention to use a BIDI® Stick in at least one flavor to completely switch from cigarettes and/or to reduce cigarette consumption. Low trial and regular use intentions suggest that U.S. adults who do not currently smoke cigarettes and/or use e-cigarettes are unlikely to initiate use of the BIDI® Stick e-cigarette. Trial and regular use intentions are highest among adults who currently smoke cigarettes and/or use e-cigarettes. A moderate proportion of current smokers may try using a BIDI® Stick e-cigarette as a partial or complete replacement for combustible cigarettes.

Tag: Disposables, Cessation, Flavours
Key: 2XH2AMWG


Published Year: 2023.    Publication Type: Journal Article
Publication Title: Harm Reduction Journal.

Vaping among Norwegians who smoke or formerly smoked: reasons, patterns of use, and smoking cessation activity

Authors: Lund, Ingeborg

ISBN/ISSN:
1477-7517.    DOI: 10.1186/s12954-023-00768-z.
Website/Url: https://harmreductionjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12954-023-00768-z

Abstract:

Abstract Background The majority of Norwegians who use e-cigarettes are adults who have smoked. Little is known about vaping reasons and -patterns in this group. The aim of this paper was to study vaping prevalence, patterns, and motivations among adults who smoke. Furthermore, to investigate smoking intensity and smoking cessation behaviour differences between those who vape and those who do not. Methods This study was based on two separate Norwegian samples: People who had ever smoked, from 2017 ( N _=_2099), and people who currently smoked and recent quitters, from 2018/2019 ( N _=_1336). Measures of vape frequencies, vape motives, and smoking cessation behaviours were utilised in descriptive analyses of relationships between vaping and smoking behaviour. Results Less than 1 in 10 in the ever-smoked group, 1 in 5 of the currently smoked or recently quit group, were currently vaping. Ever trial rates for vaping were much higher at 1 in 3 in the ever-smoked group, and 1 in 2 in the currently smoked or recently quit group. Dual use with combustible cigarettes was common, but people who smoked tended to use e-cigarettes less frequently while those who formerly smoked tended to use them more frequently. Both quitting attempts and smoking intensity reduction were positively associated with vaping, and the most common reasons for e-cigarette use were reported to be desires to reduce harm, to stop smoking, or to reduce smoking intensity. Conclusion The results indicate that Norwegians who smoke tend to see e-cigarettes as a tool to reduce or completely stop smoking. The predominance of use-motivations related to reducing harm points at the importance of conveying correct information about relative harmfulness of tobacco- and nicotine products.

Tag: Perceptions, Cessation, Communication
Key: DQ76S7BU


Published Year: 2023.    Publication Type: Journal Article
Publication Title: Journal of General Internal Medicine.

Electronic Cigarettes: an Overlooked Tool to Alleviate Disparities in Tobacco Use Disorder Among People with Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders

Authors: Middlekauff, Holly R., Beaudin, Catherine S., Ruedisueli, Isabelle, Vuong, Jacqueline T.

ISBN/ISSN:
0884-8734, 1525-1497.    DOI: 10.1007/s11606-023-08137-z.
Website/Url: https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11606-023-08137-z

Abstract:

Abstract The remarkable decline in cigarette smoking since 1964 has plateaued; approximately 12.5% of Americans still smoke. People who continue to smoke are largely members of marginalized groups, such as people with behavioral health conditions (BHC), encompassing both mental health and substance use disorders. Certified smoking cessation interventions can increase smoking abstinence in trials in people with BHC, yet smoking rates remain markedly increased, leading to increased mortality from smoking-related diseases, and worsening health disparities. A novel approach tailored to the unique needs, characteristics, and circumstances of people with BHC is mandated. One promising approach, the electronic cigarette, has not been embraced in the USA, likely due to an understandable concern for non-smoking young people among whom electronic cigarettes have been popular. Recent data confirm that electronic cigarette use is declining among young people, yet cigarette smoking is not declining among people with BHC. We propose smoking cessation trials utilizing electronic cigarettes in people with BHC. To this goal, the UK has already begun allowing companies to submit their products for approval as medically licensed electronic cigarettes that can be prescribed as smoking cessation aids. Our proposal is timely, backed by evidence, and aims to save hundreds of thousands of American lives.

Tag: Substance Use Disorder, Metal Health, Cessation
Key: AAMMYBWY


Published Year: 2023.    Publication Type: Journal Article
Publication Title: JAMA Network Open.

Association of Electronic Cigarette Use by US Adolescents With Subsequent Persistent Cigarette Smoking

Authors: Warner, Kenneth E., Sun, Ruoyan

ISBN/ISSN:
2574-3805.    DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.4885.
Website/Url: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2802764

Abstract:

Importance
Many studies have reported a positive association of youth electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use with subsequent cigarette smoking initiation, but it remains unclear whether e-cigarette use is associated with continued cigarette smoking after initiation.

Objective
To assess the association of youth baseline e-cigarette use with their continued cigarette smoking 2 years after initiation.

Design, Setting, and Participants
The Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study is a national longitudinal cohort study. This sample consisted of youth who participated in waves 3, 4, and 5 of the study (wave 3 was from October 2015 to October 2016, wave 4 was from December 2016 to January 2018, and wave 5 was from December 2018 to November 2019) and had never used cigarettes (cigarette-naive) by wave 3. The current analysis used multivariable logistic regressions in August 2022 to assess the association between e-cigarette use among cigarette-naive adolescents aged 12 to 17 years in 2015 and 2016 and subsequent continued cigarette smoking. PATH uses audio computer-assisted self-interviewing and computer-assisted personal interviewing to collect data.

Exposures
Ever and current (past 30-day) use of e-cigarettes in wave 3.

Main Outcomes and Measures
Continued cigarette smoking in wave 5 after initiating smoking in wave 4.

Results
The current sample included 8671 adolescents who were cigarette naive in wave 3 and also participated in waves 4 and 5; 4823 of the participants (55.4%) were aged 12 to 14 years, 4454 (51.1%) were male, and 3763 (51.0%) were non-Hispanic White. Overall, regardless of e-cigarette use, few adolescents (362 adolescents [4.1%]) initiated cigarette smoking at wave 4, and even fewer (218 participants [2.5%]) continued smoking at wave 5. Controlling for multiple covariates, the adjusted odds ratio of baseline ever e-cigarette use, compared with never e-cigarette use, was 1.81 (95% CI, 1.03 to 3.18) for continued smoking measured as past 30-day smoking at wave 5. However, the adjusted risk difference (aRD) was small and not significant. The aRD was 0.88 percentage point (95% CI, −0.13 to 1.89 percentage points) for continued smoking, with the absolute risk being 1.19% (95% CI, 0.79% to 1.59%) for never e-cigarette users and 2.07% (95% CI, 1.01% to 3.13%) for ever e-cigarette users. Similar results were found using an alternative measure of continued smoking (lifetime ≥100 cigarettes and current smoking at wave 5) and using baseline current e-cigarette use as the exposure measure.

Conclusions and Relevance
In this cohort study, absolute and relative measures of risks yielded findings suggesting very different interpretations of the association. Although there were statistically significant odds ratios of continued smoking comparing baseline e-cigarette users with nonusers, the minor risk differences between them, along with the small absolute risks, suggest that few adolescents are likely to continue smoking after initiation regardless of baseline e-cigarette use.

Tag: Youth, Gateway
Key: GM3DR8V5


Published Year: 2023.    Publication Type: Journal Article
Publication Title: JAMA Network Open.

e-Cigarette and Cigarette Use Among Youth: Gateway or Common Liability?

Authors: Delnevo, Cristine D.

ISBN/ISSN:
2574-3805.    DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.4890.
Website/Url: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2802772

Abstract:

In 2018, the National Academy of Science, Engineering, and Medicine’s report on electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) concluded that youths use of e-cigarettes is associated with increased risk of ever cigarette smoking.
The conventional operational definitions for ever and current use of tobacco differ for youths and adults.
Future efforts examining the association between use of e-cigarettes or other tobacco products and cigarette smoking should focus on sustained patterns of use that are associated with detrimental health outcomes
A prior analysis of Population Assessment on Tobacco Use and Health (PATH) data found that the use of any type of tobacco product was associated with odds of cigarette smoking initiation, which increased with the number of types of tobacco product previously used.
Patterns of youth experimentation with multiple tobacco products are consistent with the common liability theory, which suggests that the propensity to try tobacco products influences patterns of use.
The most recent data from the 2022 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) highlighted concerning rates of e-cigarette use (14.1%), it documented the lowest rate of cigarette smoking (2.0%) ever recorded for high school–aged youths.
This is notable, considering that in 2009, around the time when e-cigarettes were introduced in the US, the cigarette smoking prevalence was 23.2%

Tag: Youth, Gateway
Key: 7JZBVQDI


Published Year: 2023.    Publication Type: Journal Article
Publication Title: Tobacco Control.

Changing patterns of cigarette and ENDS transitions in the USA: a multistate transition analysis of youth and adults in the PATH Study in 2015–2017 vs 2017–2019

Authors: Meza, Rafael, Levy, David T, Mistry, Ritesh, Tam, Jamie, Friedman, Abigail S, Holford, Theodore R, Land, Stephanie R, Jimenez-Mendoza, Evelyn, Jeon, Jihyoun, Brouwer, Andrew F

ISBN/ISSN:
0964-4563, 1468-3318.    DOI: 10.1136/tc-2022-057905.
Website/Url: https://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/tc-2022-057905

Abstract:

Introduction
It is unknown how recent changes in the tobacco product marketplace have impacted transitions in cigarette and electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) use.

Methods
A multistate transition model was applied to 24 242 adults and 12 067 youth in waves 2–4 (2015–2017) and 28 061 adults and 12 538 youth in waves 4 and 5 (2017–2019) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study. Transition rates for initiation, cessation and product transitions were estimated in multivariable models, accounting for gender, age group, race/ethnicity and daily versus non-daily product use.

Results
Changes in ENDS initiation/relapse rates depended on age, including among adults. Among youth who had never established tobacco use, the 1-year probability of ENDS initiation increased after 2017 from 1.6% (95% CI 1.4% to 1.8%) to 3.8% (95% CI 3.4% to 4.2%). Persistence of ENDS-only use (ie, 1-year probability of continuing to use ENDS only) increased for youth from 40.7% (95% CI 34.4% to 46.9%) to 65.7% (95% CI 60.5% to 71.1%) and for adults from 57.8% (95% CI 54.4% to 61.3%) to 78.2% (95% CI 76.0% to 80.4%). Persistence of dual use similarly increased for youth from 48.3% (95% CI 37.4% to 59.2%) to 60.9% (95% CI 43.0% to 78.8%) and for adults from 40.1% (95% CI 37.0% to 43.2%) to 63.8% (95% CI 59.6% to 67.6%). Youth and young adults who used both products became more likely to transition to ENDS-only use, but middle-aged and older adults did not.

Conclusions
ENDS-only and dual use became more persistent. Middle-aged and older adults who used both products became less likely to transition to cigarette-only use but not more likely to discontinue cigarettes. Youth and young adults became more likely to transition to ENDS-only use.

Tag: Cessation, Dual Use
Key: ME8UKZM4


Published Year: 2023.    Publication Type: Journal Article
Publication Title: The American Journal of Medicine.

Efficacy and Safety of E-Cigarette Use for Smoking Cessation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Authors: Eisenberg, Mark J., Prell, Celine, Reynier, Pauline, Filion, Kristian B., Levett, Jeremy Y.

ISBN/ISSN:
29343.    DOI: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2023.04.014.
Website/Url: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002934323002954

Abstract:

Background
People who smoke conventional cigarettes are increasingly turning to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) as a pathway to quitting. However, the efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation remains controversial.

Methods
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), identified through a systematic search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases. Inclusion was restricted to RCTs with a follow-up duration ≥6 months. The primary endpoint was the most rigorous criterion of biochemically validated abstinence at maximum follow-up, and the primary comparison was nicotine e-cigarettes versus any conventional (ie, non-e-cigarette) smoking cessation therapy. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used to assess bias. Count data were pooled across trials using random-effects models with inverse variance weighting to estimate relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We registered the study protocol with the Open Science Framework Registries (osf.io/26fkq).

Results
A total of 5 RCTs (n = 3253) were included. Compared with conventional smoking cessation therapies, the use of nicotine e-cigarettes was associated with an increase in abstinence, defined by the most rigorous criterion of abstinence reported (RR 1.77; 95% CI, 1.29-2.44). Nicotine e-cigarettes also increased abstinence (defined by the most rigorous criterion) compared with non-nicotine e-cigarettes (RR 1.56; 95% CI, 1.13-2.15). The incidence of death or serious adverse events was low across all trials at maximum follow-up.

Conclusions
Among individuals attempting to quit smoking, nicotine e-cigarettes are more efficacious than conventional nicotine replacement or behavioral smoking cessation therapies, and may prove beneficial in reducing smoking-related health risks.

Tag: Cessation, Meta-analysis, Systematic Review, Comparison
Key: Y8THT9ES


Published Year: 2023.    Publication Type: Journal Article
Publication Title: Drug and Alcohol Review.

Common adverse events of electronic cigarettes compared with traditional nicotine replacement therapies: A systematic review and meta_analysis

Authors: Stjepanovi_, Daniel, Hall, Wayne D., Connor, Jason P., Sun, Tianze, Chan, Gary C. K., Leung, Janni, Anandan, Aathavan Shanmuga

ISBN/ISSN:
0959-5236, 1465-3362.    DOI: 10.1111/dar.13674.
Website/Url: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/dar.13674

Abstract:

Issues: Established literature suggests that electronic cigarettes (EC) are more effective than traditional nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) as a smoking cessation aid, but the factors that mediate this difference remain poorly understood. We examine how adverse events (AE) associated with EC use relative to NRTs differ, with the view that differences in AEs experienced may drive differences in use and compliance. Approach: Papers for inclusion were identified via a three-tiered search strategy. Eligible articles involved healthy participants and compared nicotine ECs to non-nicotine ECs or NRTs and reported frequency of AE as an outcome. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted to compare the likelihood for each of the AEs between nicotine ECs, non-nicotine placebo ECs and NRTs. Key findings: A total of 3756 papers were identified, of which 18 were meta-analysed (10 cross-sectional and 8 randomised controlled trials). Meta-analytic results found no significant difference in the rates of reported AEs (i.e., cough, oral irritation, nausea) between nicotine ECs and NRTs, and between nicotine and non-nicotine placebo ECs. Implications: The variation in the incidence of AEs likely does not explain user preferences of ECs to NRTs. Incidence of common AEs reported because of EC and NRT use did not differ significantly. Future work will need to quantify both the adverse and favourable effects of ECs to understand the experiential mechanisms that drive the high uptake of nicotine ECs relative to established NRTs. Conclusions: There is inconclusive evidence on the incidence of AEs experience when using ECs compared to NRTs, possibly given the small sample size of studies.

Tag: Meta-analysis, Systematic Review, Comparison, Adverse Effects
Key: PYW8HLUH